History > Evidence Proves Pythagoras did Exist

Evidence Proves Pythagoras did Exist

Is Pythagoras real or a myth?

A popular conspiracy theorist says there is no evidence Pythagoras existed. On his blog he says:

1. Anyone can tell stories but no one seems to know any actual evidence for Pythagoras.
2. But what exactly is the historical evidence for Pythagoras?
3. This tactic … deviously hides the fact that there is actually no evidence for Pythagoras: whether he actually existed…
4. Racists are unwilling to honestly admit that there is no actual evidence for Pythagoras
5. Since there is no evidence for “Pythagoras”

This rumour spreader is wrong. Pythagoras did exist and there is evidence, if you look. 

Yes! Pythagoras was a real historical figure!

Here are some early Ancient Greek Primary Source References to Pythagoras who died around 500 BCE

  • Isocrates (Isoc.) was an ancient Greek rhetorician. He was one of the earliest known writers on Pythagoras as he lived 436 – 338 BCE.
  • Xenophon (Xen.) was another Greek historian around 430–355 BCE who mentioned Pythagoras.
  • Plato (Pla.) is a famous philosopher who lived around 429–347 BCE. He discussed Pythagoras as well.
  • Flavius Josephus (Joseph. Ap) was a first-century Romano-Jewish historian. His comments about Pythagoras were written about 60 CE.
  • Diodorus of Sicily (Diod. Sic.) was an ancient Greek historian. He wrote on Pythagoras between 60 and 30 BCE.
  • Pausanias (Paus.) flourished around 143–176 CE. He mentioned Pythagoras in his book wrote Descriptions of Greece.
  • Philostratus (Philostr.) lived around 170—245 CE. Known as ‘the Athenian’ he also wrote about Pythagoras.
  • Diogenes Laertius (Diog. Laert.) was an ancient Greek historian who wrote about the history of various philosophers including Pythagoras. He is most known for Lives of Eminent Philosophers written around 220 CE.

Ancient Greek Secondary Source References to Pythagoras

  • Antiphon c. 480 – 411 BCE 

Pythagoras of Samos was a real person. There are simply too many references in Ancient Greek and Ionian manuscripts to have been faked. Benign myths can be created within the primary source language, yet they are usually embellishments of some core truth. By contrast, malicious myths are more likely to be created upon translation from primary sources into secondary sources. In the case of Pythagoras, Greek sources will have more credibility than Latin translations as

1) Confusion can arise as not all words parse correctly from language to language,
2) Original Latin texts may have been biased by being written for a Roman audience, and
3) Latin translations of Greek texts were initially undertaken by Romans as an occupying force.

FYI, in the text below, Pythagoras’ name appears as Πυθαγόρας in Ancient Greek and Πυθαγόρης in Ionic Greek. The material below is sourced from:  https://artflsrv03.uchicago.edu/philologic4/Greek/

All extracts of primary source Greek texts below are via this Perseus link.
All extended translations are freely available to anyone via this Perseus link.

Diod. Sic. between 60 and 30 BCE. 10 . 3 . 1

ἔτη τετταράκοντα τέτταραδιὰ τῆς ἰδίας ἀρετῆς κατωρθωκὼς οὐκ ὀλίγα τῶν κοινῶνὅτι ἐπʼ ἄρχοντος Ἀθήνησι Θηρικλέους κατὰ τὴν ἑξηκοστὴν πρώτην Ὀλυμπιάδα Πυθαγόρας  φιλόσοφος ἐγνωρίζετοπροκεκοφὼς ἤδη ἐν παιδείᾳ· γέγονε γὰρ ἱστορίας ἄξιοςεἰ καί τις ἕτερος τῶν περὶ παιδείαν διατριψάντωνγέγονε δὲ Σάμιος τὸ γένος· οἱ δέ φασιν

he rushed at Tullius, and seizing him by the arm he hurled him down the steps. Tullius picked himself up and, limping from the fall, endeavoured to flee, but was put to death. Const. Exc. 4, p. 293. Servius Tullius, the king of the Romans, enjoyed a rule of forty-four years, successfully establishing not a few institutions in the commonwealth by virtue of his own high character. When Thericles was archon in Athens in the Sixty-first Olympiad, Pythagoras, the philosopher, was generally recognized, having already far advanced in learning; for if there is any man of those who have cultivated learning deserving of a place in history, it is he. By birth he was a Samian, though some men say that he was a Tyrrhenian. And there was such persuasion and charm in his words that every day almost the entire city turned to him, as to a god present among them, and all men ran in crowds to hear him. Not only in eloquence of speech did he show himself great, but he also displayed a character of soul which was temperate and constituted a marvellous model of a life of modesty for the youth to emulate. Whoever associated with him he converted from their ways of extravagance

Diod. Sic. between 60 and 30 BCE. 10 . 3 . 4

ἐντυγχάνοντας ἀπέτρεπεν ἀπὸ τῆς πολυτελείας καὶ τρυφῆςἁπάντων διὰ τὴν εὐπορίαν ἀνέδην ἐκκεχυμένων εἰς ἄνεσιν καὶ διαφθορὰν ἀγεννῆ τοῦ σώματος καὶ τῆς ψυχῆςὅτιΠυθαγόραςπυθόμενος Φερεκύδην τὸν ἐπιστάτην αὐτοῦ γεγενημένον ἐν Δήλῳ νοσεῖν καὶ τελέως ἐσχάτως ἔχεινἔπλευσεν ἐκ τῆς Ἰταλίας εἰς τὴν Δῆλονἐκεῖ δὲ χρόνον ἱκανὸν τὸν ἄνδρα γηροτροφ

a place in history, it is he. By birth he was a Samian, though some men say that he was a Tyrrhenian. And there was such persuasion and charm in his words that every day almost the entire city turned to him, as to a god present among them, and all men ran in crowds to hear him. Not only in eloquence of speech did he show himself great, but he also displayed a character of soul which was temperate and constituted a marvellous model of a life of modesty for the youth to emulate. Whoever associated with him he converted from their ways of extravagance and luxury, whereas all men, because of their wealth, were giving themselves over without restraint to indulgence and an ignoble dissipation of body and soul. Pythagoras, learning that his old teacher Pherecydes lay ill in Delos and was at the point of death, set sail from Italy to Delos. There he took care of the old man for a considerable time and made every effort to bring the aged man safely through his malady. And when Pherecydes was overcome by his advanced years and the severity of the disease, Pythagoras made every provision for his burial, and after performing the accustomed rites for him, as a son would for his father, he returned to Italy. Whenever any of the companions of Pythagoras lost their fortune, 
Diod. Sic. c. 60 – 30 BCE10 . 6 . 1

ἐπιθυμίας πρὸς τὴν ἀπόλαυσιν ἐκκαλεσάμενοι τὰς τραπέζας ἐκέλευον αἴρειν τοὺς παῖδαςκαὶ παραχρῆμα ἄγευστοι τῶν παρατεθέντων ἐχωρίζοντο.Const. Exc. 2 (1), pp. 220- 223. ὅτι  Πυθαγόρας μετεμψύχωσιν ἐδόξαζε καὶ κρεοφαγίαν ὡς ἀποτρόπαιον ἡγεῖτοπάντων τῶν ζῴων τὰς ψυχὰς μετὰ θάνατον εἰς ἕτερα ζῷα λέγων εἰσέρχεσθαικαὶ αὐτὸς δὲ ἑαυτὸν ἔφασκεν ἐπὶ τῶν Τρωικ

This practice they followed to gain knowledge and judgement in all matters and experience in the ability to call many things to mind. The Pythagoreans trained themselves in the exercise of self-control in the following manner. They would have prepared for them everything which is served up at the most brilliant banquets, and would gaze upon it for a considerable time; then, after through mere gazing they had aroused their natural desires with a view to their gratification, they would command the slaves to clear away the tables and would at once depart without having tasted of what had been served. Const. Exc. 2 (1), pp. 220-223. Pythagoras believed in the transmigration of souls and considered the eating of flesh as an abominable thing, saying that the souls of all living creatures pass after death into other living creatures. And as for himself, he used to declare that he remembered having been in Trojan times Euphorbus, the son of Panthus, who was slain by Menelaus. We are told that once, when Pythagoras was sojourning in Argos, he saw a shield from the spoils of Troy fastened by nails to the wall and wept. And when the Argives inquired of him the cause of his grief, he replied that he himself had carried this shield in the land of

Diod. Sic. c. 60 – 30 BCE10 . 9 . 1

τοῦ διατηρεῖσθαι τὰς ὑπὲρ τούτων ὑποθήκας τὸ τοὺς Πυθαγορείους ὑπόστασιν ἔχειν μηδὲν τοιοῦτο ποιεῖν ἔγγραφονἀλλὰ διὰ μνήμης ἔχειν τὰ παραγγελλόμεναὅτι  Πυθαγόρας πρὸς τοῖς ἄλλοις παρήγγελλε τοῖς μανθάνουσι σπανίως μὲν ὀμνύναιχρησαμένους δὲ τοῖς ὅρκοις πάντως ἐμμένειν καὶ πρὸς τέλος ἄγειν ὑπὲρ ὧν ἄν τις ὀPauμόσῃ πραγμάτωνοὐχ ὁμοίαν

in addition to his other injunctions, commanded his pupils rarely to take an oath, and, when they did swear an oath, to abide by it under any circumstances and to bring to fulfilment whatever they have sworn to do; and that they should never reply as did Lysander the Laconian and Demades the Athenian, the former of whom once declared that boys should be cheated with dice and men with oaths, and Demades affirmed that in the case of oaths, as in all other affairs, the most profitable course is the one to choose, and that it was his observation that the perjurer forthwith continued to possess the things regarding which he had taken the oath, whereas the man who had kept his oath had manifestly lost what had been his own. For neither of these men looked upon the oath, as did Pythagoras, as a firm pledge of faith, but as a bait to use for ill-gotten gain and deception. Const. Exc. 4, pp. 293-295. Pythagoras commanded his pupils rarely to take an oath, and when they did swear an oath, to abide by it under every circumstance. The same Pythagoras, in his reflections upon the pleasures of love, taught that it was better to approach women in the summer not at all, and in the winter only sparingly. For in general he considered every kind of pleasure of love to be harmful, and believed that the uninterrupted indulgence in them is altogether weakening and destructive. Const. Exc. 2 (1), p. 423.

Diod. Sic. c. 60 – 30 BCE10 . 9 . 2

ἀπολλύντατούτων γὰρ ἑκάτερος οὐ καθάπερ Πυθαγόρας ὑπεστήσατο τὸν ὅρκον εἶναι πίστεως ἐνέχυρον βέβαιονἀλλʼ αἰσχροκερδείας καὶ ἀπάτης δέλεαρ.Const. Exc. 4, pp. 293-295. ὅτι Πυθαγόρας παρήγγελλε τοῖς μανθάνουσι σπανίως μὲν ὀμνύναιχρησαμένους δὲ τοῖς ὅρκοις πάντως ἐμμένεινὅτι  αὐτὸς Πυθαγόρας καὶ περὶ τῶν ἀφροδισίων ἐκλογιζόμενος τὸ συμφέρον παρήγγ

reply as did Lysander the Laconian and Demades the Athenian, the former of whom once declared that boys should be cheated with dice and men with oaths, and Demades affirmed that in the case of oaths, as in all other affairs, the most profitable course is the one to choose, and that it was his observation that the perjurer forthwith continued to possess the things regarding which he had taken the oath, whereas the man who had kept his oath had manifestly lost what had been his own. For neither of these men looked upon the oath, as did Pythagoras, as a firm pledge of faith, but as a bait to use for ill-gotten gain and deception. Const. Exc. 4, pp. 293-295. Pythagoras commanded his pupils rarely to take an oath, and when they did swear an oath, to abide by it under every circumstance. The same Pythagoras, in his reflections upon the pleasures of love, taught that it was better to approach women in the summer not at all, and in the winter only sparingly. For in general he considered every kind of pleasure of love to be harmful, and believed that the uninterrupted indulgence in them is altogether weakening and destructive. Const. Exc. 2 (1), p. 423. It is told of Pythagoras that once, when he was asked by someone when he should indulge in the pleasures of love, he replied, “When you wish not to be master of yourself.”

Diod. Sic. c. 60 – 30 BCE10 . 9 . 3

δέλεαρ.Const. Exc. 4, pp. 293-295. ὅτι Πυθαγόρας παρήγγελλε τοῖς μανθάνουσι σπανίως μὲν ὀμνύναιχρησαμένους δὲ τοῖς ὅρκοις πάντως ἐμμένεινὅτι  αὐτὸς Πυθαγόρας καὶ περὶ τῶν ἀφροδισίων ἐκλογιζόμενος τὸ συμφέρον παρήγγελλε κατὰ μὲν τὸ θέρος μὴ πλησιάζειν γυναιξίκατὰ δὲ τὸν χειμῶνα προσιέναι τεταμιευμένωςκαθόλου γὰρ τὸ γένος τῶν ἀφρ

and men with oaths, and Demades affirmed that in the case of oaths, as in all other affairs, the most profitable course is the one to choose, and that it was his observation that the perjurer forthwith continued to possess the things regarding which he had taken the oath, whereas the man who had kept his oath had manifestly lost what had been his own. For neither of these men looked upon the oath, as did Pythagoras, as a firm pledge of faith, but as a bait to use for ill-gotten gain and deception. Const. Exc. 4, pp. 293-295. Pythagoras commanded his pupils rarely to take an oath, and when they did swear an oath, to abide by it under every circumstance. The same Pythagoras, in his reflections upon the pleasures of love, taught that it was better to approach women in the summer not at all, and in the winter only sparingly. For in general he considered every kind of pleasure of love to be harmful, and believed that the uninterrupted indulgence in them is altogether weakening and destructive. Const. Exc. 2 (1), p. 423. It is told of Pythagoras that once, when he was asked by someone when he should indulge in the pleasures of love, he replied, “When you wish not to be master of yourself.” The Pythagoreans divided the life of mankind into four ages

Diod. Sic. c. 60 – 30 BCE10 . 9 . 6

.Const. Exc. 4, p. 295. ὅτι  αὐτὸς Πυθαγόρας παρήγγελλε πρὸς τοὺς θεοὺς προσιέναι τοὺς θύοντας μὴ

It is told of Pythagoras that once, when he was asked by someone when he should indulge in the pleasures of love, he replied, “When you wish not to be master of yourself.” The Pythagoreans divided the life of mankind into four ages, that of a child, a lad, a young man, and an old man; and they said that each one of these had its parallel in the changes which take place in the seasons in the year’s course, assigning the spring to the child, the autumn to the man, the winter to the old man, and the summer to the lad. Const. Exc. 4, p. 295. The same Pythagoras taught that when men approach the gods to sacrifice, the garments they wear should be not costly, but only white and clean, and that likewise they should appear before the gods with not only a body clean of every unjust deed but also a soul that is undefiled. Const. Exc. 2 (1), p. 223. Pythagoras declared that prudent men should pray to the gods for good things on behalf of imprudent men; for the foolish are ignorant of what in life is in very truth the good. Pythagoras used to assert that in their supplications men should pray simply for “all good things,” and not name them singly, as, for example, power, strength, beauty, wealth, and the like

Diod. Sic. c. 60 – 30 BCE10 . 10 . 1

σώφρονος ζῆλον καὶ πρὸς ἀνδρείαν τε καὶ καρτερίανἔτι δὲ τὰς ἄλλας ἀρετάςἴσα θεοῖς παρὰ τοῖς Κροτωνιάταις ἐτιμᾶτο.Const. Exc. 2 (1), p. 223. ὅτι Πυθαγόρας φιλοσοφίανἀλλʼ οὐ σοφίαν ἐκάλει τὴν ἰδίαν αἵρεσινκαταμεμφόμενος γὰρ τοὺς πρὸ αὐτοῦ κεκλημένους ἑπτὰ σοφοὺς ἔλεγενὡς σοφὸς μὲν οὐδείς ἐστιν ἄνθρωπος ὢν καὶ πολλάκις διὰ

for the best things for themselves, whereas in truth they were calling down curses upon their own heads. Const. Exc. 4, p. 295. During the time that Pythagoras was delivering many other discourses designed to inculcate the emulation of a sober life and manliness and perseverance and the other virtues, he received at the hands of the inhabitants of Croton honours the equal of those accorded to the gods. Const. Exc. 2 (1), p. 223. Pythagoras called the principles he taught philosophia or love of wisdom, but not sophia or wisdom. For he criticized the Seven Wise Men, as they were called, who lived before his time, saying that no man is wise, being human, and many a time, by reason of the weakness of his nature, has not the strength to bring all matters to a successful issue, but that he who emulates both the ways and the manner of life of a wise man may more fittingly be called a “lover of wisdom.” Although both Pythagoras himself and the Pythagoreans after his time made such advancement and were cause of so great blessings to the states of Greece, yet they did not escape the envy which besmirches all noble things. Indeed there is no noble thing among men, I

Diog. Laert. c. 220 CE. 1 . prologue

ἐδόξασανλέγουσι δὲ καὶ ὡς αὐτοὶ γεωμετρίαν τε καὶ ἀστρολογίαν καὶ ἀριθμητικὴν ἀνεῦρονκαὶ τὰ μὲν περὶ τῆς εὑρέσεως ὧδε ἔχειΦιλοσοφίαν δὲ πρῶτος ὠνόμασε Πυθαγόρας καὶ ἑαυτὸν φιλόσοφονἐν Σικυῶνι διαλεγόμενος Λέοντι τῷ Σικυωνίων τυράννῳ  Φλιασίωνκαθά φησιν Ἡρακλείδης  Ποντικὸς ἐν τῇ Περὶ τῆς ἄπνου· μηδένα γὰρ εἶναι σοφὸν ἄνθρωπον

say that the stars consist of fire, and that, according as the fire in them is mixed, so events happen upon earth; that the moon is eclipsed when it falls into the earth’s shadow; that the soul survives death and passes into other bodies; that rain is caused by change in the atmosphere; of all other phenomena they give physical explanations, as related by Hecataeus and Aristagoras. They also laid down laws on the subject of justice, which they ascribed to Hermes; and they deified those animals which are serviceable to man. They also claimed to have invented geometry, astronomy, and arithmetic. Thus much concerning the invention of philosophy. But the first to use the term, and to call himself a philosopher or lover of wisdom, was Pythagoras; for, said he, no man is wise, but God alone. Heraclides of Pontus, in his De mortua, makes him say this at Sicyon in conversation with Leon, who was the prince of that city or of Phlius. All too quickly the study was called wisdom and its professor a sage, to denote his attainment of mental perfection; while the student who took it up was a philosopher or lover of wisdom. Sophists was another name for the wise men, and not only for philosophers but for the poets also. And so Cratinus when praising Homer and Hesiod in his Archilochi gives them the title of sophist. The men who were commonly regarded as sages were the following: Thales, Solon, 

cont.

who took it up was a philosopher or lover of wisdom. Sophists was another name for the wise men, and not only for philosophers but for the poets also. And so Cratinus when praising Homer and Hesiod in his Archilochi gives them the title of sophist. The men who were commonly regarded as sages were the following: Thales, Solon, Periander, Cleobulus, Chilon, Bias, Pittacus. To these are added Anacharsis the Scythian, Myson of Chen, Pherecydes of Syros, Epimenides the Cretan; and by some even Pisistratus the tyrant. So much for the sages or wise men. But philosophy, the pursuit of wisdom, has had a twofold origin; it started with Anaximander on the one hand, with Pythagoras on the other. The former was a pupil of Thales, Pythagoras was taught by Pherecydes. The one school was called Ionian, because Thales, a Milesian and therefore an Ionian, instructed Anaximander; the other school was called Italian from Pythagoras, who worked for the most part in Italy. And the one school, that of Ionia, terminates with Clitomachus and Chrysippus and Theophrastus, that of Italy with Epicurus. The succession passes from Thales through Anaximander, Anaximenes, Anaxagoras, Archelaus, to Socrates, who introduced ethics or moral philosophy; from Socrates to his pupils the Socratics, and especially to Plato, the founder of the Old Academy; from Plato, through Speusippus and Xenocrates, the succession passes to 

cont.

was another name for the wise men, and not only for philosophers but for the poets also. And so Cratinus when praising Homer and Hesiod in his Archilochi gives them the title of sophist. The men who were commonly regarded as sages were the following: Thales, Solon, Periander, Cleobulus, Chilon, Bias, Pittacus. To these are added Anacharsis the Scythian, Myson of Chen, Pherecydes of Syros, Epimenides the Cretan; and by some even Pisistratus the tyrant. So much for the sages or wise men. But philosophy, the pursuit of wisdom, has had a twofold origin; it started with Anaximander on the one hand, with Pythagoras on the other. The former was a pupil of Thales, Pythagoras was taught by Pherecydes. The one school was called Ionian, because Thales, a Milesian and therefore an Ionian, instructed Anaximander; the other school was called Italian from Pythagoras, who worked for the most part in Italy. And the one school, that of Ionia, terminates with Clitomachus and Chrysippus and Theophrastus, that of Italy with Epicurus. The succession passes from Thales through Anaximander, Anaximenes, Anaxagoras, Archelaus, to Socrates, who introduced ethics or moral philosophy; from Socrates to his pupils the Socratics, and especially to Plato, the founder of the Old Academy; from Plato, through Speusippus and Xenocrates, the succession passes to Polemo, Crantor, and Crates, Arcesilaus, founder of the Middle

cont.

the title of sophist. The men who were commonly regarded as sages were the following: Thales, Solon, Periander, Cleobulus, Chilon, Bias, Pittacus. To these are added Anacharsis the Scythian, Myson of Chen, Pherecydes of Syros, Epimenides the Cretan; and by some even Pisistratus the tyrant. So much for the sages or wise men. But philosophy, the pursuit of wisdom, has had a twofold origin; it started with Anaximander on the one hand, with Pythagoras on the other. The former was a pupil of Thales, Pythagoras was taught by Pherecydes. The one school was called Ionian, because Thales, a Milesian and therefore an Ionian, instructed Anaximander; the other school was called Italian from Pythagoras, who worked for the most part in Italy. And the one school, that of Ionia, terminates with Clitomachus and Chrysippus and Theophrastus, that of Italy with Epicurus. The succession passes from Thales through Anaximander, Anaximenes, Anaxagoras, Archelaus, to Socrates, who introduced ethics or moral philosophy; from Socrates to his pupils the Socratics, and especially to Plato, the founder of the Old Academy; from Plato, through Speusippus and Xenocrates, the succession passes to Polemo, Crantor, and Crates, Arcesilaus, founder of the Middle Academy, Lacydes, founder of the New Academy, Carneades, and Clitomachus. This line brings us to Clitomachus.

cont.

from Plato, through Speusippus and Xenocrates, the succession passes to Polemo, Crantor, and Crates, Arcesilaus, founder of the Middle Academy, Lacydes, founder of the New Academy, Carneades, and Clitomachus. This line brings us to Clitomachus. There is another which ends with Chrysippus, that is to say by passing from Socrates to Antisthenes, then to Diogenes the Cynic, Crates of Thebes, Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes, Chrysippus. And yet again another ends with Theophrastus; thus from Plato it passes to Aristotle, and from Aristotle to Theophrastus. In this manner the school of Ionia comes to an end. In the Italian school the order of succession is as follows: first Pherecydes, next Pythagoras, next his son Telauges, then Xenophanes, Parmenides, Zeno of Elea, Leucippus, Democritus, who had many pupils, in particular Nausiphanes [and Naucydes], who were teachers of Epicurus. Philosophers may be divided into dogmatists and sceptics: all those who make assertions about things assuming that they can be known are dogmatists; while all who suspend their judgement on the ground that things are unknowable are sceptics. Again, some philosophers left writings behind them, while others wrote nothing at all, as was the case according to some authorities with Socrates, Stilpo, Philippus, Menedemus, Pyrrho, Theodorus, Carneades, Bryson; some add Pythagoras and Aristo of Chios, except that 

cont.

is as follows: first Pherecydes, next Pythagoras, next his son Telauges, then Xenophanes, Parmenides, Zeno of Elea, Leucippus, Democritus, who had many pupils, in particular Nausiphanes [and Naucydes], who were teachers of Epicurus. Philosophers may be divided into dogmatists and sceptics: all those who make assertions about things assuming that they can be known are dogmatists; while all who suspend their judgement on the ground that things are unknowable are sceptics. Again, some philosophers left writings behind them, while others wrote nothing at all, as was the case according to some authorities with Socrates, Stilpo, Philippus, Menedemus, Pyrrho, Theodorus, Carneades, Bryson; some add Pythagoras and Aristo of Chios, except that they wrote a few letters. Others wrote no more than one treatise each, as Melissus, Parmenides, Anaxagoras. Many works were written by Zeno, more by Xenophanes, more by Democritus, more by Aristotle, more by Epicurus, and still more by Chrysippus. Some schools took their name from cities, as the Elians and the Megarians, the Eretrians and the Cyrenaics; others from localities, as the Academics and the Stoics; others from incidental circumstances, as the Peripatetics; others again from derisive nicknames, as the Cynics; others from their temperaments, as the Eudaemonists or Happiness School; others from a conceit they entertained, as Truthlovers, Refutationists, and Reasoners from Analogy; others again from their teacher

Diog. Laert. c. 220 CE. 8 . 1

ιʹἈποδείξεις πρὸς τὸ μὴ εἶναι τὴν ἡδονὴν τέλος δʹἈποδείξεις πρὸς τὸ μὴ εἶναι τὴν ἡδονὴν ἀγαθὸν δʹΠερὶ τῶν λεγομένων ὑπὲρ τῆς · · · ηʹ Κεφ. αʹ. ΠΥΘΑΓΟΡΑΣ Ἐπειδὴ δὲ τὴν Ἰωνικὴν φιλοσοφίαν τὴν ἀπὸ Θαλοῦ καὶ τοὺς ἐν ταύτῃ διαγενομένους ἄνδρας ἀξιολόγους διεληλύθαμενφέρε καὶ περὶ τῆς Ἰταλικῆς διαλάβωμενἧς ἦρξε Πυθαγόρας

He it was who brought geometry to perfection, while it was Moeris who first discovered the beginnings of the elements of geometry : Anticlides(c. 3o0 BCE) in his second book On Alexander* affirms this, and further that Pythagoras spent most of his time upon the arithmetical aspect of geometry ; he also discovered the musical intervals on the monochord. Nor did he neglect even medicine. We are told by Apollodorus the calculator (died c. 370 BCE) that he offered a sacrifice of oxen on finding that in a right-angled triangle the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the squares on the sides containing the right angle.

 

19 Diog. Laert.
Pliny, N.H. xxix. 5. Or perhaps a grandson, as Wilamowitz suggests, Antig. von Kar. p. 326. Cf. supr. ii. 101. A well-known fallacy ; see Book II. § 108. Cf. supra, § 162. Cf. Cicero, Acad. post. 42 “sed inter scientiam et inscientiam comprehensionem illam, quam dixi, collocabat” [sc. Zeno] ; Sext. Emp. Adv. math. vii. 151. Compare Clement Alex. Strom. i. 62 Πυθαγόρας μὲν οὖν Μνησάρχου Σάμιος, ὥς φησιν Ἱππόβοτος, ὡς δὲ Ἀριστόξενος ἐν τῷ Πυθαγόρου βίῳ, καὶ Ἀρίσταρχος καὶ Θεόπομπος, Τυρρηνὸς ἦν, ὡς δὲ Νεάνθης, Σύριος ἢ Τύριος, ὥστε εἶναι κατὰ τοὺς πλείστους τὸν Πυθαγόραν βάρβαρον τὸ γένος. Porphyry also (V. Pyth. i.) favours the connexion with Phoenicia, so that the boy Pythagoras was instructed there by Chaldaeans before, on his return to Samos, he enjoyed the instruction of Pherecydes of Syros and of Hermodainas of Samos. iv. 93 sq. Compare Clement Alex. Str
20 Diog. Laert.
καὶ Ἀρίσταρχος καὶ Θεόπομπος, Τυρρηνὸς ἦν, ὡς δὲ Νεάνθης, Σύριος ἢ Τύριος, ὥστε εἶναι κατὰ τοὺς πλείστους τὸν Πυθαγόραν βάρβαρον τὸ γένος. Porphyry also (V. Pyth. i.) favours the connexion with Phoenicia, so that the boy Pythagoras was instructed there by Chaldaeans before, on his return to Samos, he enjoyed the instruction of Pherecydes of Syros and of Hermodainas of Samos. iv. 93 sq. Compare Clement Alex. Strom. i. 66 Θαλῆς . . . τοῖς Αἱγυπτίων προφήταις συμβεβληκέναι εἴρηται, καθάπερ καὶ ὁ Πυθαγόρας αὐτοῖς γε τούτοις διʼ οὓς καὶ περιετέμνετο, ἵνα δὴ καὶ εἰς τὰ ἄδυτα κατελθὼν τὴν μνστικὴν παρὰ Αἰγυπτίων ἐκμάθοι φιλοσοφίαν. Cf. also Iamblichus, Vit. Pyth. 18 sq. Fr. 129 D., 17 B. §§ 6-7 ἔνιοι μὲν καθηγησαμένου. Hesychius in Suidas (s.v.), an authority older than Schol. Plat. 600 B, proves that this passage is a coherent whole. The fragment of Heraclitus (B 129 Diels, 17 Byw.) is certainly genuine. There may be, in ἱστορίην, an allusion to the s
21 Diog. Laert.

the context. Or rather “soft cheese”;cf. supra,i. § 7, note. Cf. Iamblichus, Vit. Pyth. 25, and Porphyry, De abstinentia, i. 26. Cf. inf. ix. 23. See, however, Porphyry, Vit. Pyth. 4, who cites as his authority Timaeus the Sicilian historian (F.H.G. i. p. 211, Fr. 78), who was not improbably the source used by Favorinus. The χοῖνιξ was about a quart, in dry measure. The word Πυθαγόρας being taken to be a compound from Πύθιος and ἀγορεύειν. For the doctrines of Pythagoras(§§ 25-35) Alexander is taken as D. L.’s authority (see Introd. pp. xxvi, xxvii) This indefatigable pedant is known to have written a special work on the Pythagorean system. Our author may not have possessed this work by Alexander, but he probably had access to a public library containing it. In any case he deserves praise for the selection. Between Alexander Polyhistor in the first century b.c. and the threshold of the third century a.d. there had been an enormous increase in neoPythagorean literature, mostly dealing with mystical properties of numbers and with ethics based

 

22 Joseph. Ap. 1 . 162
ἀποπληρῶσαι τὴν ἐπιζήτησιν καὶ παρασχεῖν πολλοὺς καὶ τούτων ἐπισταμένους τὸ ἔθνος ἡμῶν καὶ καθʼ  καιρὸς ἦν αὐτοῖς μνημονεύοντας παραθέσθαι ἐν ἰδίοις αὐτῶν συγγράμμασιΠυθαγόρας τοίνυν  Σάμιος ἀρχαῖος ὤνσοφίᾳ δὲ καὶ τῇ περὶ τὸ θεῖον εὐσεβείᾳ πάντων ὑπειλημμένος διενεγκεῖν τῶν φιλοσοφησάντωνοὐ μόνον ἐγνωκὼς τὰ παρʼ ἡμῖν δῆλός ἐστινἀλλὰ
23 Joseph. Ap. 1 . 164

τοίνυν ἐν τῷ πρώτῳ τῶν περὶ Πυθαγόρου βιβλίωνὅτι Πυθαγόρας ἑνὸς αὐτοῦ τῶν συνουσιαστῶν τελευτήσαντος τοὔνομα Καλλιφῶντος

 

24 Joseph. Ap. 2 . 168

Ἕλλησιν ὅτι μὲν ἐδιδάχθησαν ἐκείνου τὰς ἀρχὰς παρασχόντοςἐῶ νῦν λέγεινὅτι δʼ ἐστὶ καλὰ καὶ πρέποντα τῇ τοῦ θεοῦ φύσει καὶ μεγαλειότητισφόδρα μεμαρτυρήκασι· καὶ γὰρ Πυθαγόρας καὶ Ἀναξαγόρας καὶ Πλάτων οἵ τε μετʼ ἐκεῖνον ἀπὸ τῆς στοᾶς φιλόσοφοι καὶ μικροῦ δεῖν ἅπαντες οὕτως φαίνονται περὶ τῆς τοῦ θεοῦ φύσεως πεφρονηκότεςἀλλʼ οἱ

 

25 Isoc. 11 . 28

ὡρμημένος πολλὰ καὶ θαυμαστὰ περὶ τῆς ὁσιότητος αὐτῶν διελθεῖνἣν οὔτε μόνος οὔτε πρῶτος ἐγὼ τυγχάνω καθεωρακώςἀλλὰ πολλοὶ καὶ τῶν ὄντων καὶ τῶν προγεγενημένωνὧν καὶ Πυθαγόρας  Σάμιός ἐστιν· ὃς ἀφικόμενος εἰς Αἴγυπτον καὶ μαθητὴς ἐκείνων γενόμενος τήν τʼ ἄλλην φιλοσοφίαν πρῶτος εἰς τοὺς Ἕλληνας ἐκόμισεκαὶ τὰ περὶ τὰς θυσίας καὶ τὰς ἁγ

 

26 Paus. 2 . 13 . 2

ἀμαχεὶ τοῖς Δωριεῦσιν ἀφίστασθαιπροσεμένου δὲ τοῦ δήμου τὴν ἐναντίαν ταύτην γνώμηνοὕτως Ἵππασος σὺν τοῖς ἐθέλουσιν ἐς Σάμον φεύγειἹππάσου δὲ τούτου τέταρτος ἦν ἀπόγονος Πυθαγόρας  λεγόμενος γενέσθαι σοφός· Μνησάρχου γὰρ Πυθαγόρας ἦν τοῦ Εὔφρονος τοῦ Ἱππάσουταῦτα μὲν Φλιάσιοι λέγουσι περὶ αὑτῶνὁμολογοῦσι δέ σφισι τὰ πολλὰ καὶ Σικυώνιοι.

 

27 Paus. 2 . 13 . 2

τοῦ δήμου τὴν ἐναντίαν ταύτην γνώμηνοὕτως Ἵππασος σὺν τοῖς ἐθέλουσιν ἐς Σάμον φεύγειἹππάσου δὲ τούτου τέταρτος ἦν ἀπόγονος Πυθαγόρας  λεγόμενος γενέσθαι σοφός· Μνησάρχου γὰρ Πυθαγόρας ἦν τοῦ Εὔφρονος τοῦ Ἱππάσουταῦτα μὲν Φλιάσιοι λέγουσι περὶ αὑτῶνὁμολογοῦσι δέ σφισι τὰ πολλὰ καὶ Σικυώνιοιπροσέσται δὲ ἤδη καὶ τῶν ἐς ἐπίδειξιν

 

28 Paus. 6 . 4 . 4
καὶ τὸ παγκράτιον τῷ Σικυωνίῳ Σωστράτῳ· καὶ γὰρ τὸν Λεοντίσκον καταβαλεῖν μὲν οὐκ ἐπίστασθαι τοὺς παλαίονταςνικᾶν δὲ αὐτὸν κλῶντα τοὺς δακτύλουςτὸν δὲ ἀνδριάντα Πυθαγόρας ἐποίησεν  Ῥηγῖνοςεἴπερ τις καὶ ἄλλος ἀγαθὸς τὰ ἐς πλαστικήνδιδαχθῆναι δὲ παρὰ Κλεάρχῳ φασὶν αὐτόνῬηγίνῳ μὲν καὶ αὐτῷμαθητῇ δὲ Εὐχείρου· τὸν δὲ Εὔχειρον
29 Paus. 6 . 6 . 1
παρὰ τοῦ Πουλυδάμαντος τὸν ἀνδριάντα δύο τε ἐκ τῆς Ἀρκάδων καὶ Ἀττικὸς  τρίτος ἕστηκεν ἀθλητήςτὸν μὲν δὴ Μαντινέα Πρωτόλαον Διαλκοῦς πυγμῇ παῖδας κρατήσαντα  Ῥηγῖνος ΠυθαγόραςΝαρυκίδαν δὲ τὸν Δαμαρέτου παλαιστὴν ἄνδρα ἐκ Φιγαλίας Σικυώνιος ΔαίδαλοςΚαλλίᾳ δὲ Ἀθηναίῳ παγκρατιαστῇ τὸν ἀνδριάντα ἀνὴρ Ἀθηναῖος Μίκων ἐποίησεν  ζωγράφοςΝικοδάμου δὲ
30 Paus. 6 . 7 . 10
σιτία τυρὸν ἐκ τῶν ταλάρων εἶναιτούτου μὲν δὴ Πυθαγόρας τὴν εἰκόνατὴν δὲ ἐφεξῆς ταύτῃπένταθλον Ἠλεῖον
31 Paus. 6 . 13 . 7

πρῶτος πὺξ ἐκράτησεν ἐν παισίνἔστιν ἔργον Σικυωνίου Κανάχου παρὰ τῷ Ἀργείῳ Πολυκλείτῳ διδαχθέντοςπαρὰ δὲ τὸν Βύκελον ὁπλίτης ἀνὴρ ἐπίκλησιν Λίβυς Μνασέας Κυρηναῖος ἕστηκε· Πυθαγόρας δὲ  Ῥηγῖνος ἐποίησε τὴν εἰκόναΚυζικηνῷ δὲ Ἀγεμάχῳ τῶν ἐκ τῆς Ἀσιανῆς ἠπείρου γενέσθαι ἐν Ἄργει τὸ ἐπίγραμμα τὸ ἐπʼ αὐτῷ μηνύειΝάξου δὲ οἰκισθείσης

 

32 Philostr. VA 1 . 1

δὲ καὶ μὴ ὁμολογοῦντας τὴν Ἀθηνᾶν καὶ τὰς Μούσας καὶ θεοὺς ἑτέρουςὧν τὰ εἴδη καὶ τὰ ὀνόματα οὔπω τοὺς ἀνθρώπους γιγνώσκεινκαὶ  τι ἀποφήναιτο  Πυθαγόραςνόμον τοῦτο οἱ ὁμιληταὶ ἡγοῦντο καὶ ἐτίμων αὐτὸν ὡς ἐκ Διὸς ἥκοντακαὶ  σιωπὴ δὲ ὑπὲρ τοῦ θείου σφίσιν ἐπήσκητο· πολλὰ γὰρ θεῖά τε καὶ ἀπόρρητα ἤκουον,

 

33 Philostr. VA 1 . 2

γὰρ τούτοις ἐπιτηδεύσαντα Ἀπολλώνιον καὶ θειότερον   Πυθαγόρας τῇ σοφίᾳ προσελθόντα τυραννίδων τε ὑπεράραντα καὶ γενόμενον

 

34 Philostr. VA 1 . 2

ἐπειδὴ μάγοις Βαβυλωνίων καὶ Ἰνδῶν Βραχμᾶσι καὶ τοῖς ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ Γυμνοῖς συνεγένετομάγον ἡγοῦνται αὐτὸν καὶ διαβάλλουσιν ὡς βιαίως σοφόνκακῶς γιγνώσκοντες· Ἐμπεδοκλῆς τε γὰρ καὶ Πυθαγόρας αὐτὸς καὶ Δημόκριτος ὁμιλήσαντες μάγοις καὶ πολλὰ δαιμόνια εἰπόντες οὔπω ὑπήχθησαν τῇ τέχνῃΠλάτων τε βαδίσας ἐς Αἴγυπτον καὶ πολλὰ τῶν ἐκεῖ προφητῶν τε καὶ ἱερέων ἐγκαταμ

 

35 Philostr. VA 3 . 19

αὐτὸ καὶ πρὸς Δομετιανὸν ὕστερον ἐν τοῖς ὑπὲρ ἑαυτοῦ λόγοιςἀναλαβὼν οὖν τὴν ἐρώτησιν περὶ ψυχῆς δὲ εἶπε πῶς φρονεῖτεὥς γε εἶπε Πυθαγόρας μὲν ὑμῖνἡμεῖς δὲ Αἰγυπτίοις παρεδώκαμενεἴποις ἂν οὖνἔφη καθάπερ  Πυθαγόρας Εὔφορβον ἑαυτὸν ἀπέφηνενὅτι καὶ σύπρὶν ἐς τοῦθʼ ἥκειν τὸ σῶμαΤρώων

 

36 Philostr. VA 3 . 19

περὶ ψυχῆς δὲ εἶπε πῶς φρονεῖτεὥς γε εἶπε Πυθαγόρας μὲν ὑμῖνἡμεῖς δὲ Αἰγυπτίοις παρεδώκαμενεἴποις ἂν οὖνἔφη καθάπερ  Πυθαγόρας Εὔφορβον ἑαυτὸν ἀπέφηνενὅτι καὶ σύπρὶν ἐς τοῦθʼ ἥκειν τὸ σῶμαΤρώων τις  Ἀχαιῶν ἦσθα   δεῖνα δὲ Ἰνδὸς Τροία μὲν ἀπώλετο εἶπεν

 

37 Philostr. VA 3 . 19

μετʼ ἐκεῖνον καλοί τε αὐτῷ καὶ γενναῖοι ᾄδονταιπρὸς τοῦτονἔφη Ἀπολλώνιεκαὶ τὸν πρόγονον θεώρει τὸν ἐμόνμᾶλλον δὲ τὸ πρόγονον σῶματουτὶ γὰρ καὶ Πυθαγόρας Εὔφορβον ἡγεῖτοἦν τοίνυν ἔφη χρόνοςὅτʼ Αἰθίοπες μὲν ᾤκουν ἐνταῦθαγένος ἸνδικόνΑἰθιοπία δʼ οὔπω ἦνἀλλʼ ὑπὲρ Μερόην τε καὶ Καταδούπους ὥριστο

 

38 Philostr. VA 4 . 16

ἀλλʼ εὐξάμενοςὁπόσα τοῖς ἥρωσιν Ἰνδοί φασιν εὔχεσθαι Ἀχιλλεῦἔφην τεθνάναι σε οἱ πολλοὶ τῶν ἀνθρώπων φασίνἐγὼ δὲ οὐ ξυγχωρῶ τῷ λόγῳοὐδὲ Πυθαγόρας σοφίας ἐμῆς πρόγονοςεἰ δὴ ἀληθεύομενδεῖξον ἡμῖν τὸ σεαυτοῦ εἶδοςκαὶ γὰρ ἂν ὄναιο ἄγαν τῶν ἐμῶν ὀφθαλμῶνεἰ μάρτυσιν αὐτοῖς τοῦ εἶναι χρήσαιοἐπὶ τούτοις

 

39 Philostr. VA 6 . 5

ὅσιον προσφθέγξασθαι τὸν ἐν τῷ αἵματικέλευσον αὐτόν μειράκιονθαρρεῖνὡς αὐτίκα δὴ καθαρεύσονταεἰ βαδίσειεν οὗ καταλύωἀφικομένῳ δὲ ἐπιδράσας ὅσα Ἐμπεδοκλῆς τε καὶ Πυθαγόρας ὑπὲρ καθαρσίων νομίζουσινἐκέλευσεν ἐς ἤθη στείχειν ὡς καθαρὸν ἤδη τῆς αἰτίαςἐντεῦθεν ἐξελάσαντες ἡλίου ἀνίσχοντος ἀφίκοντο πρὸ μεσημβρίας ἐς τὸ τῶν Γυμνῶν φροντιστήριον.

 

40 Philostr. VA 6 . 11

καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα πάθη ξυνεχωρεῖτομία δὲ αὐτῶν ἴσχειν μὲν τῶν τοιούτων ἐκόμπαζεθρασεῖα δὲ ἦν καὶ φιλολοίδορος καὶ ἀπηγκωνισμένη πάνταεἶδον σοφίας εἶδος ἄρρητονοὗ καὶ Πυθαγόρας ποτὲ ἡττήθηκαὶ εἱστήκει δὲ ἄρα οὐκ ἐν ταῖς πολλαῖςἀλλʼ ἀπετέτακτο αὐτῶν καὶ ἐσιώπαξυνεῖσα δέὡς ταῖς μὲν ἄλλαις οὐ ξυντίθεμαιτὰ δὲ ἐκείνης οὔπω οἶδα

 

41 Philostr. VA 6 . 11

καὶ ἐνίκα ἐκ καινῆς· καίτοι τραγῳδίας μὲν εὖ κεκοσμημένης ὀλίγη χάριςεὐφραίνει γὰρ ἐν σμικρῷ τῆς ἡμέραςὥσπερ  τῶν Διονυσίων ὥραφιλοσοφίας δὲ ξυγκειμένης μένὡς Πυθαγόρας ἐδικαίωσενὑποθειαζούσης δέὡς πρὸ Πυθαγόρου Ἰνδοίοὐκ ἐς βραχὺν χρόνον  χάριςἀλλʼ ἐς ἄπειρόν τε καὶ ἀριθμοῦ πλείωοὐ δὴ ἀπεικός τι παθεῖν μοι δοκῶ φιλοσοφίας

 

42 Philostr. VA 8 . 7 . 14

αὐτὰ ἔθηξαν ὑπὲρ ἐσθῆτός τε καὶ βρώσεωςἸνδοὶ τοίνυν Βραχμᾶνες αὐτοί τε οὐκ ἐπῄνουν ταῦτα καὶ τοὺς Γυμνοὺς Αἰγυπτίων ἐδίδασκον μὴ ἐπαινεῖν αὐτά· ἔνθεν Πυθαγόρας ἑλώνἙλλήνων δὲ πρῶτος ἐπέμιξεν Αἰγυπτίοιςτὰ μὲν ἔμψυχα τῇ γῇ ἀνῆκεν δʼ αὐτὴ φύειἀκήρατα εἶναι φάσκων ἐσιτεῖτοἐπιτήδεια γὰρ σῶμα καὶ νοῦν τρέφεινἐσθῆτά

 

43 Philostr. VA 8 . 7 . 39

τῶν Ἀρκάδων ἀφερμηνεύων ἤθη καὶ παριὼν ἐς Πελοπόννησον τῷ λόγῳ γὰρ ἐμοὶ προσήκουσα ἀπολογία τίςοὐκ ἔθυσα οὐ θύω οὐ θιγγάνω αἵματοςοὐδʼ εἰ βώμιον αὐτὸ εἴηΠυθαγόρας τε γὰρ ὧδε ἐγίγνωσκεν οἵ τε ἀπʼ αὐτοῦ παραπλησίωςκαὶ κατʼ Αἴγυπτον δὲ οἱ Γυμνοὶ καὶ Ἰνδῶν οἱ σοφοίπαρʼ ὧν καὶ τοῖς ἀμφὶ Πυθαγόραν αἱ τῆς σοφίας ἀρχαὶ

 

44 Pl. Resp. 10 . 600 . 600b

μὴ δημοσίᾳἰδίᾳ τισὶν ἡγεμὼν παιδείας αὐτὸς ζῶν λέγεται Ὅμηρος γενέσθαιοἳ ἐκεῖνον ἠγάπων ἐπὶ συνουσίᾳ καὶ τοῖς ὑστέροις ὁδόν τινα παρέδοσαν βίου Ὁμηρικήνὥσπερ Πυθαγόρας αὐτός τε διαφερόντως ἐπὶ τούτῳ ἠγαπήθηκαὶ οἱ ὕστεροι ἔτι καὶ νῦν Πυθαγόρειον τρόπον ἐπονομάζοντες τοῦ βίου διαφανεῖς πῃ δοκοῦσιν εἶναι ἐν τοῖς ἄλλοιςοὐδʼ αὖ,

 

45 Xen. An. 1 . 4 . 2
ἐπὶ τῇ θαλάττῃ οἰκουμένηνμεγάλην καὶ εὐδαίμοναἐνταῦθα ἔμειναν ἡμέρας τρεῖς· καὶ Κύρῳ παρῆσαν αἱ ἐκ Πελοποννήσου νῆες τριάκοντα καὶ πέντε καὶ ἐπʼ αὐταῖς ναύαρχος Πυθαγόρας Λακεδαιμόνιοςἡγεῖτο δʼ αὐταῖς Ταμὼς Αἰγύπτιος ἐξ Ἐφέσουἔχων ναῦς ἑτέρας Κύρου πέντε καὶ εἴκοσιναἷς ἐπολιόρκει Μίλητονὅτε Τισσαφέρνει φίλη ἦνκαὶ συνεπολέμει Κύρῳ πρὸς

In Greek Pythagoras appears as Πυθαγόρας in Ancient Greek and Πυθαγόρης in Ionic Greek. So double click on Πυθαγόρας to highlight the word.  Then use ‘Ctrl c’ to copy the text into your clipboard. Then use ‘Ctrl f’ to bring up the search box. Then use ‘Ctrl v’ to paste the term into the search box. Hit enter and you will find many references to Pythagoras within the text. The material below is sourced from:  https://artflsrv03.uchicago.edu/philologic4/Greek/

Ancient Ionic Primary Source References to Pythagoras

  1. 1 Diog. Laert. 1 . 11

    γῆν· οὐ ψεύδομαι ὧδʼ ἀγορεύωνἼων δʼ  Χῖός φησιν περὶ αὐτοῦὣς  μὲν ἠνορέῃ τε κεκασμένος ἠδὲ καὶ αἰδοῖ καὶ φθίμενος ψυχῇ τερπνὸν ἔχει βίοτονεἴπερ Πυθαγόρης ἐτύμως  σοφὸς περὶ πάντων ἀνθρώπων γνώμας ᾔδεε κἀξέμαθενἜστι καὶ ἡμῶν οὕτως ἔχον τῷ μέτρῳ τῷ Φερεκρατείῳ· τὸν κλεινὸν Φερεκύδηνὃν τίκτει ποτὲ Σῦρος,

     

  2. 2 Diog. Laert. 8 . 1

    Πυθαγόραν καὶ πάντων τῶν εἰρημένων μεμνῆσθαιἜνιοι μὲν οὖν Πυθαγόραν μηδὲ ἓν καταλιπεῖν σύγγραμμά φασιν παίζοντεςἩράκλειτος γοῦν  φυσικὸς μονονουχὶ κέκραγε καί φησι· Πυθαγόρης Μνησάρχου ἱστορίην ἤσκησεν ἀνθρώπων μάλιστα πάντων καὶ ἐκλεξάμενος ταύτας τὰς συγγραφὰς ἐποιήσατο ἑαυτοῦ σοφίηνπολυμαθείηνκακοτεχνίηνοὕτω δʼ εἶπενἐπειδήπερ ἐναρχόμενος  Πυθαγόρας τοῦ Φυσι

     

  3. 3 Diog. Laert. 8 . 1

    δʼ Ἀπολλόδωρος  λογιστικὸς ἑκατόμβην θῦσαι αὐτόνεὑρόντα ὅτι τοῦ ὀρθογωνίου τριγώνου  ὑποτείνουσα πλευρὰ ἴσον δύναται ταῖς περιεχούσαιςκαὶ ἔστιν ἐπίγραμμα οὕτως ἔχον· ἡνίκα Πυθαγόρης τὸ περικλεὲς εὕρετο γράμμακεῖνʼ ἐφʼ ὅτῳ κλεινὴν ἤγαγε βουθυσίηνΛέγεται δὲ καὶ πρῶτος κρέασιν ἀσκῆσαι ἀθλητάςκαὶ πρῶτόν γʼ Εὐρυμένηνκαθά φησι Φαβωρῖνος ἐν τρίτῳ τῶ

     

  4. 4 Diog. Laert. 8 . 1

    χέραςἀλλὰ καὶ ἡμεῖς· τίς γὰρ ὃς ἐμψύχων ἥψατοΠυθαγόραἀλλʼ ὅταν ἑψηθῇ τι καὶ ὀπτηθῇ καὶ ἁλισθῇδὴ τότε καὶ ψυχὴν οὐκ ἔχον ἐσθίομενἄλλο· ἦν ἄρα Πυθαγόρης τοῖος σοφόςὥστε μὲν αὐτὸς μὴ ψαύειν κρειῶν καὶ λέγεν ὡς ἄδικονσιτίζειν δʼ ἄλλουςἄγαμαι σοφόν· αὐτὸς ἔφα μὲν οὐκ ἀδικεῖνἄλλους δʼ αὐτὸς ἔτευχʼ ἀδικεῖν.

     

  5. 5 Diog. Laert. 8 . 1

    βλέψον ἐς ὀμφάλιονφησὶ γὰρ οὗτοςἘγὼν ἦν πρόβροτος· ὃς δʼ ὅτε οὐκ ἦνφάσκων ὥς τις ἔηνοὔτις ἔην ὅτʼ ἔηνκαὶ ἄλλοὡς ἐτελεύτα· αἲαἴΠυθαγόρης τί τόσον κυάμους ἐσεβάσθηκαὶ θάνε φοιτηταῖς ἄμμιγα τοῖς ἰδίοιςχωρίον ἦν κυάμων· ἵνα μὴ τούτους δὲ πατήσῃἐξ Ἀκραγαντίνων κάτθανʼ ἐνὶ τριόδῳἬκμαζε δὲ καὶ κατὰ

     

  6. 6 Diog. Laert. 8 . 1

    προσβῆναι τοὺς ἄνδρας καὶ νικῆσαιδηλοῦν δὲ τοῦτο καὶ τοὐπίγραμμα ὅπερ ἐποίησε Θεαίτητος· Πυθαγόρην τινάΠυθαγόρην ξεῖνεκομήτηνᾀδόμενον πύκτην εἰ κατέχεις ΣάμιονΠυθαγόρης ἐγώ εἰμι· τὰ δʼ ἔργα μου εἴ τινʼ ἔροιο Ἠλείωνφήσεις αὐτὸν ἄπιστα λέγεινΤοῦτον  Φαβωρῖνός φησιν ὅροις χρήσασθαι διὰ τῆς μαθηματικῆς ὕληςἐπὶ πλέον δὲ Σωκράτ

     

  7. 7 Diog. Laert. 8 . 1

    τούτῳ φασὶν ἀντιπαρατάσσεσθαι Κύλωνα καθάπερ Ἀντίλοχον ΣωκράτειἘπὶ δὲ τοῦ ἀθλητοῦ Πυθαγόρου καὶ τοῦτʼ ἐλέγετο τὸ ἐπίγραμμα· οὗτος πυκτεύσων ἐς Ὀλύμπια παισὶν ἄνηβος ἤλυθε Πυθαγόρης  Κράτεω Σάμιος δὲ φιλόσοφος καὶ ὧδε ἐπέστειλε· Πυθαγόρης ἈναξιμένειΚαὶ σύ λῷστεεἰ μηδὲν ἀμείνων ἦς Πυθαγόρεω γενεήν τε καὶ κλέοςμεταναστὰς ἂν

     

  8. 8 Diog. Laert. 8 . 1

    τοῦ ἀθλητοῦ Πυθαγόρου καὶ τοῦτʼ ἐλέγετο τὸ ἐπίγραμμα· οὗτος πυκτεύσων ἐς Ὀλύμπια παισὶν ἄνηβος ἤλυθε Πυθαγόρης  Κράτεω Σάμιος δὲ φιλόσοφος καὶ ὧδε ἐπέστειλε· Πυθαγόρης ἈναξιμένειΚαὶ σύ λῷστεεἰ μηδὲν ἀμείνων ἦς Πυθαγόρεω γενεήν τε καὶ κλέοςμεταναστὰς ἂν οἴχεο ἐκ Μιλήτου· νῦν δὲ κατερύκει σε  πατρόθεν εὔκλειακαὶ ἐμὲ

     

  9. 9 Diog. Laert. 9 . 7
    καὶ ταῦτα μὲν αὐτῷ ἐδόκειΤὰ δὲ βιβλία αὐτοῦ καὶ Θρασύλος ἀναγέγραφε κατὰ τάξιν οὕτως ὡσπερεὶ καὶ τὰ Πλάτωνος κατὰ τετραλογίανἜστι δὲ ἤθικα μὲν τάδε· ΠυθαγόρηςΠερὶ τῆς τοῦ σοφοῦ διαθέσεωςΠερὶ τῶν ἐν ᾍδουΤριτογένεια (τοῦτο δέ ἐστινὅτι τρία γίνεται ἐξ αὐτῆς πάντα ἀνθρώπινα συνέχει). Περὶ ἀνδραγαθίας  περὶ ἀρετ

NOTE: There are also early CE Latin references to Pythagoras. However, I omit them here on the grounds mentioned above

Q2. Did Pythagoras have a connection to the triangle theorem that bears his name? 

=====

A2. No! There’s no evidence Pythagoras was a geometer or mathematician.

 

NAMASTE and G’Day!
My name is Jonathan Crabtree. I am an independent elementary mathematics historian and researcher based in Melbourne Australia. I do my best to conduct research without any nationalistic country of origin bias. Similarly, because I am agnostic and have an open mind, there is no religious bias in my research either. Lastly, because I have always worked outside the confines of the university sector, I have not been limited in the scope of my research.
You can agree with me or disagree with me. I welcome fact-based scholarly feedback with appropriate references and citations. Mathematics research and education policies are too important to be dictated by the whims of social media. Too many people claim they do research when all they really do is spend a few hours online. So, thank you for reading. I welcome your feedback via feedback (at) podo (dot) in

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